In Vitro maturation (IVM)
In Vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an emerging infertility treatment with great promise. For successful assisted reproductive technology.
There must be both nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of the oocytes and give rise to human embryos that have the same developmental potential as embryos resulting from the golden standard of human IVF.
The aspiration of immature oocytes from small to medium size antral follicles followed by their maturation In Vitro present an attractive alternative to the hormonal stimulation of patients in In Vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.
Administration of exogenous hormones is a costly treatment and and if there is a resistance to follicular gowth or risk of OHSS (e.g.: in Patients with low ovarian reserve, Severe PCOD patients) IVM is a viable option
In vitro maturation (IVM) is a better and cost efficient alternative compared to IVF. IVM procedure has been proved to be successful and research is going on to improve the techniques.
How Does IVM Work?
In the IVM procedure, less dosage of medicines and drugs are used to stimulate the ovaries to produce eggs. This technique was designed to serve women having problems like PCOS patients, thus minimizing the excessive usage of medicines, and hormone stimulators and OHSS.
Whereas in IVF, the eggs are mature which are then retrieved when it’s close to ovulation. But in the IVM procedure, immature eggs are collected and then matured in the lab, using low dosage drugs and hormones for about 24 to 48 hours depending on how immature the egg and the time it needs to mature.
When the eggs are matured, a sperm is inserted into the egg for fertilization using the intracytoplasmic sperm injection process(ICSI). After fertilization the embryo is implanted into the woman’s uterus. IVM has evolved recently, with successful results.
It’s a best alternative to IVF, where infertile women having multiple antral follicles who have higher chances of developing OHSS (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome).
IVM is suitable for ?
Like all fertility treatments, IVM is not suitable for all women. IVM procedure is most suitable for women such as :
Women suffering with increased risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), also women having PCOS polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Women below 40 and have regular menstrual cycles.
IVM can be combined with regular IVF cycles where several immature eggs are collected.
Advantages of IVM
As IVM procedure uses medicines and hormones of less dosage, it considerably reduces the risk of OHS which is rare but a serious medical complication.
Compared to other infertility treatments, IVM is cost efficient and doesn’t use medications such as gonadotropin.
IVM procedure takes less time when compared to IVF.
IVM has proven to yield promising result, with success rate around 30-35% per cycle.
For women suffering with PCOD, IVM is a best option.
Disadvantages of IVM
IVM is a recent evolvement in the infertility treatments and the results are yet unclear.
As this procedure collects very immature eggs, utmost care has to be taken to handle the eggs.
It becomes hard for the sperm to enter the egg, hence ICSI procedure must be used.