Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) refers to genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation. This is most useful in couples who are having repeated miscarriages or in whom there is a family history of any disease
An IVF /IMSI is done on such patients in whom the disease is known and PGD testing is performed in the embryos before embryo transfer, The term preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is used to denote procedures that do not look for a specific disease but use PGD techniques to identify embryos at risk.
These procedures are between husband and wife and at our hospital with great precaution and care.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a medical procedure done before the implantation of the embryo into the woman's uterus. By doing the genetic diagnosis it easily examines the presence of any genetic disorders or defects within embryos. This serves to prevent certain genetic diseases or disorders in the embryo which can transfer to the baby. The embryos used for examining in the PGD procedure are produced in the IVF procedure.
How PGD is performed?
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a normal procedure like the in vitro fertilization(IVF) where the egg is collected and then fertilized with the sperm in the laboratory, few days after the fertilization, the embryo is carefully split into multiple cells.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis comprises the below steps:
- Initially few cells from the 5 day old embryo is surgically removed.Once the cells are collected the embryo is safely put back to freezing.
- The DNA structure of the cell is examined to figure out if the cells have any signs of abnormality or problems in the DNA in each embryo. To complete this process it takes around a week.
- After the PGD diagnosis, if the embryo has no signs of genetic problems, the embryo(s) is then implanted into the uterus following the IVF procedure, once the implantation is done, it’s tested for successful pregnancy.
- Any extra embryos which have no traces of problems are frozen for future use while the embryo with signs of problematic genes are discarded.
People who can benefit from PGD?
Couple who suffer from genetic disorder history can make the best out of Preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Listed below is the ideal candidates apt for PGD.
- People affected with sex related genetic disordersCarriers of single gene disorders
- Carriers of single gene disorders
- Those with chromosomal disorders
- Women above 35+.
- Women who had miscarriage issues.
- Women who had more than one failed fertility treatment PGD also serves couples who want gender selection. However its inhuman act to do so.
Conditions diagnosed using PGD
PGD must be done for 3 categories of diseases such as
- sex-related disorders.
- Single gene defects.
- Chromosomal abnormalities.
Advantages of PGD?
- PGD a single test can examine more than 100 different genetic conditions.
- The procedure is done prior to proceed for the implantation, thereby giving couple ample time to decide if they want to continue with the pregnancy or not.
- The procedure is advantageous for couples who want to have biological children.