NK CELLS, Natural Killer cells Treatment at SWCIC in India
Natural killer (NK) cells are sub variety of the white blood cells (WBC) which is the body’s defense mechanism.They provide immunity by fighting & safeguarding the body against harmful tumors, and infections etc.
NK CELLS (Natural Killer cells)
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Some types of infertility may be caused by a slightly overactive immune system. When this occurs the immune system can attack egg, sperm, embryo and even a developing fetus. This can result in difficulty achieving pregnancy, maintaining the pregnancy, or repeated miscarriages.
Natural killer (NK) cells are regulated by the immune system. In women who have autoimmune issues, the NK cells can react abnormally to an implanting embryo, treating it as an invading cell and signalling for the body to attack it.
What are Natural Killer Cells?
Natural killer (NK) cells are sub variety of the white blood cells it’s the basis for the body’s defense mechanism. They fight and safeguard the body against harmful tumors, infections and bacteria etc. It’s important to observe the role of NK cells when the body is normal and when it’s affected by disease. It’s amazing to know that each organ in our body has NK cells to protect the organ, and the womb has the most NK cells. Here, NK cells play their role to support the blood supply for the development of the foetus, and to detect if any foreign cells are entering into the body from the father’s cells or egg donations if they are body-friendly. However, if the count of NK cells is more than normal, they are destructive. They impact negatively and begin to attack rather than safeguarding the pregnancy, and leads to abortion or miscarriage. In few cases, extremely high levels of NK cells will be a reason for implantation failure.
As we know that the improper functioning of NK cells leads to a miscarriage, many health clinics conduct blood tests to track the NK cells which circulate in the bloodstream. If the rate is high or abnormal some medications and steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins are given which obstruct the fallopian tubes. With the advancements in technology and treatments which focus on NK cells in women which contribute to the failure of pregnancy, its misfortune that science is not able to handle it
Uterine natural killer cells
NK cells are a powerful kind of immunity cells which occupy in the uterine mucosa while the placenta is being formed in the uterus. Also these NK cells occur in non pregnant women which exist in the endometrium and they are actively supervised by the female ovarian hormones. Once the ovulation takes place, the NK cells growth at a tremendous speed contributing to 30% of endometrial stroma. After ovulation they rapidly grow in count and gather where the implantation happens, and interact closely with the placenta cells which convert the arteries to conductance vessels. Its significant that this conversion takes place as it supplies proper blood flow to the growing fetus in the uterus.
Testing of NK Blood cells
Immunity cells play an important role in the immunity system to check early signs of any viral or infectious and cancer cells that might be present in the uterus which obstruct the process of implantation. Hence its utmost important to check the NK cells in blood flow for women who experience often miscarriage.the tests results reveal that women who have recurrent miscarriages have high levels of NK cells in the uterine which hinder the successful implantation. The percentage of NK cells for an individual differ anywhere from 5% to 29%. The presence of NK cells exceeding levels of 12% leads to miscarriage and can be treated.The presence of NK cells exceeding levels of 12% leads to miscarriage and can be treated. The percentage of the level of NK cells that exist in an individual depend on several factors such as age, stress levels etc. The tests for presence of NK cells results vary in different labs. Also NK cells present in the uterine have significantly lower cytolytic life compared to NK cells present in the bloodstream. However there is no scientific evidence that the percentage level or existence of NK cells which leads to miscarriages.
What are NK Cells in Relation to Pregnancy?
Natural killer cells are important for our body which is normally used to destroy anything that can be harmful. They are a subtype of white blood cell which provides a response to tumor cells formation and infected cells.
Implantation is an unusual situation for the immune system where these natural defenses are lowered.
In implantation, the embryo goes into the uterus lining to establish its own blood supply. So, it can get nutrients for development and continues to grow rapidly. If any other organism is trying to do this type, our immune system will freak out.
So, our NK cells have orders to not to shoot this apparent invasion of the uterus in order to get success in pregnancy.
Natural Killer Cells Diagnosis
It is important that know the difference between two types of NK cells when they are going for NK cells test. Not knowing the difference between blood NK cells and uterine means you can be misdiagnosed by your physician.
Uterine NK cells are known as Superbright CD56 natural killer cells. Approximately 90% of NK cells are presented in the uterus are called Superbright CD56. Dim CD56 NK cells are known as blood NK cells. Approximately 90% of NK cells are presented in the blood are called Dim CD56.
Uterine NK cells are different from blood NK cells. Some experts are concluding that NK cells in the blood are not useful in finding the cause of reproductive failure.
Natural Killer Cells Treatment
Steroids are the main drug that is used to reduce the percentage of NK cells in the womb.
Everyone has different NK cells levels. If a woman is identified as having NK cells, then give the right medication to get the correct balance in the cells.
Medication is reduced after 12 to 16 weeks. By 10 weeks, the fetus starts producing its own steroids.
Why NK cells are required for Implantation and Normal Pregnancy?
Trophoblast cells incursion is essential for a successfully implanted embryo in the luminal epithelium of the endometrium. Presence of uterine Natural Killer cells in close proximity to EVT (Extra Villous Trophoblast) cells has played a vital role during the process of trophoblast incursion.
NK Cells and Miscarriage
The main cause of pregnancy failure is the overproduction of NK cells. Natural Killer cells activity is propelled by an auto-immune disease or by high-stress levels. In some cases, such as endometriosis, inflammation in the pelvic cavity, inflammation in the fallopian tubes or polycystic ovarian syndrome, the immune system sends signals to the circulating Natural Killer cells in the bloodstream which starts attacking the embryo mistakenly. When peripheral NK cells are entering into the site of inflammation uterine NK cells, they become incapable of protecting the embryo against the peripheral natural killer cells action. This will damage the embryo.
The increased NK levels are diagnosed through a biopsy. It is performed in between the 24th and 28th day of the woman’s menstrual cycle having inflammation in potential infertility conditions like endometriosis or pelvic cavity.
Nk cells production levels are increased due to inflammation or overactive immune system. The thyroid function is evaluated due to this problem. A complete evolution of T3 and T4, TSH is required to assess the thyroid gland functioning.
Steroids are the choice for controlling high uterine Natural Killer cells before and after conception.
NK Cells Side Effects
Difficulty in breathing
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